The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Toxicology is a study of toxic substances such as poisons and poisoning. It is a discipline that overlaps with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine. It involves the study of adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning. The goal of toxicity assessment is to identify adverse effects of a substance. Adverse effects depend on two main factors. They are routes of exposure such as oral, inhalation, or dermal; and dose duration and concentration of exposure.
Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences which is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word Pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacokinetics deals with the study of the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient. Primary goals of clinical pharmacokinetics include enhancing efficacy and decreasing toxicity of a patient's drug therapy. The development of strong correlations between drug concentrations and their pharmacologic responses has enabled clinicians to apply pharmacokinetic principles to actual patient situations. A drug's effect is often related to its concentration at the site of action so to monitor effectively. Receptor sites of drugs are generally inaccessible to our observations or are widely distributed in the body, and therefore direct measurement of drug concentrations at these sites is not practical.
Medical pharmacological medicine may be a subspecialty of medication that specialize in pharmacological medicine and providing the designation, management, and hindrance of poisoning and different adverse effects thanks to medications, activity and environmental toxicants, and biological agents. Medical toxicologist’s area unit concerned within the assessment and treatment of a good form of issues together with acute or chronic poisoning, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug overdoses, envenomations, misuse, industrial accidents, and different chemical exposures.
Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system, with the goal of developing compounds that offer therapeutic benefit in humans with psychiatric and neurological disease.
Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology provides in-depth information describing the underlying mechanisms through which toxicants produce their adverse responses. It links traditional toxicology to modern molecular techniques; uses a didactic approach with basic biological or theoretical background for the methodology presented; brings together and comprehensively covers a range of dynamic aspects in biochemical and molecular toxicology; guides professional toxicologists in comprehending a broad range of issues, compiled and authored by a diverse group of experts. It further covers biochemical toxicology of organic substances and the relevant methodology in some detail. This session discusses more about molecular and biochemical toxicology.
Ocular Pharmacology deals with basic and clinical research about biopharmaceuticals that have the potential to prevent, treat, and/or diagnose ocular diseases and disorders and its associated treatments. Ophthalmic diseases include those both analogous to systemic diseases (e.g., inflammation, infection, neuronal degeneration) and not analogous (e.g., cataract, myopia). Many anterior segment diseases are treated pharmacologically through eye drops, which have an implied therapeutic index of local therapy. Unlike administering pills for systemic diseases, eyedrops require patients not only to adhere to treatment, but to be able to accurately perform - i.e., instill drops correctly
Immunotoxicology deals with the study of immune dysfunction resulting from exposure of an organism to a xenobiotic. The immune dysfunction may take the form of immunosuppression or alternatively, allergy, autoimmunity or any number of inflammatory-based diseases or pathologies. Because the immune system plays a critical role in host resistance to disease as well as in normal homeostasis of an organism, identification of immunotoxic risk is significant in the protection of human, animal and wildlife health.
Cardiotoxicity is defined as “toxicity that affects the heart”. It is a condition when there is damage to the heart muscle. As a result of cardiotoxicity, the heart may not be able to pump blood throughout the body as well. This may be due to chemotherapy drugs, or other medications which may be taking to control the disease.
Toxicity Testing deal with codified toxicologic evaluation of potential pesticides have been a requirement in the United States for approximately 50 years. The testing requirements and guidelines continue to evolve based on new science. This chapter identifies the current testing that is pertinent to the young animal and young human as well as aspects of testing that are needed to fill the data gaps to better ensure the protection of infants and children. The current testing guidelines can be found in Pesticide Assessment Guidelines issued by the Environmental Protection Agency. Data, including those derived from toxicity testing, crop residue analyses, environmental fate testing, and ecotoxicology testing, are generated by the manufacturer of a pesticide to meet the mandatory requirements of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) for pesticide registration
Industrial toxicology is the application of the principles and methodology of toxicology to understanding and managing chemical and biological risks and hazards encountered at work. The objective of the occupational toxicology is to prevent adverse health effects in workers that arise from exposures in their work environment. The science of toxicology has many applications. One of these relates to exposure of people to noxious or hazardous agents during the course of their work.
Phenotypic screening is a type of screening used in biological research and drug discovery to identify substances such as small molecules, peptides, or RNAi that alter the phenotype of a cell or an organism in a desired manner. Phenotypic screening historically has been the basis for the discovery of new drugs. Compounds are screened in cellular or animal disease models to identify compounds that cause a desirable change in phenotype. Only after the compounds have been discovered are efforts made to determine the biological targets of the compounds which are target deconvolution. This session discusses more on phenotypic drug screening.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept that describes subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use. Increasing its dosage may re-amplify the drug's effects. However this may accelerate the tolerance further reducing the drug's effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not necessarily associated with drug dependence or addiction. The process of tolerance development is reversible such as through a drug holiday and can involve both physiological factors and psychological factors.
Toxicologists perform many alternative duties as well as analysis within the tutorial, non-profit-making and industrial fields, product safety analysis, consulting, public service and legal regulation. So as to analysis and assess the results of chemicals, toxicologists perform fastidiously designed studies and experiments. These experiments facilitate determine the particular quantity of a chemical which will cause damage and potential risks of being close to or mistreatment product that contain bound chemicals.
Food and Nutritional Toxicology provides a broad overview of the chemicals in food that have the potential to produce adverse health effects. It deals with the impact on human health of food containing environmental contaminants or natural toxicants, food additives, the migration of chemicals from packaging materials into foods, and the persistence of feed and food contaminants in food products. It deals with the adverse effects of nutrient excesses, the impact of contaminants on nutrient utilization, metabolism of food toxicants, and the relationship of the body's biologic defense mechanisms to such toxicants.
Haemostasis is the first step of wound healing after the wound ceases to bleed due to a mechanism of Coagulation. If the process of haemostasis does not occur it might lead to an excess loss of blood which can lead to the hypovolemic shock or even death of the individual. The liquid monomer component of Methyl Methacrylate is a cytotoxic component which is associated frequently with fatal cardiorespiratory collapse in cases of Implantations of acrylic cements. And some of the cases where the usage of the NSAIDS may lead to an increased tendency of bleeding which can be considered fatal some times and thus the study of the effect of Haemostasis play a very important role in the field of Toxicology. Hence the study of the Knowledge is essential in cases of drug effects on Haemostasis.
Forensic Toxicology deals with the study of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of the death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilized but rather the obtainment and interpretation of results. A toxicological analysis can be done with various kinds of samples. Forensic Toxicology deals with the study of the investigation, in particular, any physical symptoms recorded, and any evidence collected at a crime scene that may narrow the search, such as pill bottles, powders, trace residue, and any available chemical