Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacokinetics deals with the study of the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient. Primary goals of clinical pharmacokinetics include enhancing efficacy and decreasing toxicity of a patient's drug therapy. The development of strong correlations between drug concentrations and their pharmacologic responses has enabled clinicians to apply pharmacokinetic principles to actual patient situations. A drug's effect is often related to its concentration at the site of action so to monitor effectively. Receptor sites of drugs are generally inaccessible to our observations or are widely distributed in the body, and therefore direct measurement of drug concentrations at these sites is not practical.